To avoid the problems of the Open Loop controller, feedback is introduced to close the loop and control states or outputs of a dynamical system. Its name comes from the information path in the system: process inputs (e.g. voltage applied to an electric motor) have an effect on the process outputs (e.g. velocity or torque of the motor), which is measured with sensors and processed by the controller; the result (the control signal) is used as input to the process, closing the loop.
A common closed-loop controller architecture is the PID controller
See Wikipedia: Classical control theory: the closed-loop controller